(1)The ‘failing forward’ synthesis of liberal intergovernmentalism and neofunctionalism puts European member states governments in charge of the process of integration (Jones et al., 2016). This placement does not clearly show whether the principals are reactive or proactive. That distinction is important in understanding what it means to say that integration is a movement ‘forward’ and what we mean by ‘success’. Moving forward could mean realizing the great ideals of Europe’s political leaders, but it could also mean reacting to solve problems, however imperfectly. The process of Eastern enlargement shows this distinction at work. We argue that enlargement is ‘successful’ as a reactive process, not a proactive one. In proactive terms, the Eastern enlargement process has a consistent record of failure inasmuch as political leaders did not get what they wanted when they wanted it. In reactive terms, enlargement contributed to the creation of a wider and deeper European Union.
(2) What function does EU’s role identity play in the development of the Common Security and Defense Policy? This paper seeks to investigate the function and effects of EU’s civilian, non-militaristic identity on the evolution of defense cooperation and integration in the EU through the debates on the evolution of CSDP. It argues that EU’s civilian, nonmilitaristic identity plays a significant function in shaping policy debate on defense integration at EU level, empowering those actors opposing further defense integration and constraining those supporting it. To test these claims, I use a case study research design and employ discourse network analysis and process tracing as within-case methods.
Lucas Schramm (European University Institute – SPS)
Johanna Breuer (SPS – European University Institute)