TRANSNATIONAL seeks to explain the intensity of polarization in Western societies on immigration, international governance, climate change. It combines insights from political cleavage theory, identity theory, and social networks to examine the sources and consequences of transnational polarization through surveys, natural experiments, and interviews. The research is funded by a five-year advanced ERC grant #885026 to Liesbet Hooghe. TRANSNATIONAL was kicked off in January 2021. Project leaders are Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks.


Research team

Liesbet Hooghe, Research Professor, EUI
Gary Marks, Research Professor, EUI
Julia Schulte-Cloos, Postdoctoral Researcher, EUI

Project manager

Jo Wielgo

Visiting Fellows

Ashley A. Anderson, Assistant Professor, UNC Chapel Hill (2022)
Nicoló Conti, Professor, Unitelma Sapienza University, Rome (2022-2023)
Ruth Dassonneville, Canada Research Chair in Electoral Democracy, University of Montreal (2021-2022)
Pieter de Wilde, Professor, Norwegian University of Science and Technology at Trondheim (2021)
Gabriele Magni, Assistant Professor, Loyola Marymount University (2022)
Christina Zuber, Professor, University of Konstanz (2022)

Transnational ERC Associates

Jeremy Ferwerda, Assistant Professor, Dartmouth College
Stephanie N. Shady, PhD. Graduate, UNC Chapel Hill



  • Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Stephanie Shady. “Mensheviks, Bolsheviks, and the divide on the religious right: Conservative pastors and the use of force.” Working Paper.
  • Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks, “The Social Roots of the Transnational Cleavage: Sex, Education, and Occupation.” Working paper.
  • Gabriele Magni, Jeremy Ferwerda, Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks, “Circles of Solidarity: COVID impact on In- and Outgroup perceptions in Italy.” Working paper.
  • Cecilia Martinez-Gallardo, Nico de la Cerda, Jonathan Hartlyn, Ryan Bakker, Liesbet Hooghe, and Gary Marks, “Revisiting Party System Structuration in Latin America and Europe: Economic and Socio-Cultural Dimensions.” Working paper.
  • Tobias Lenz, Bes Ceka, Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Alexander Burilkov, “Discovering Cooperation: A Theory of Endogenous Institutional Change in International Organizations.” Working paper.
  • Gary Marks, Liesbet Hooghe, David Attewell, Jan Rovny, and Marco Steenbergen. The Social Bases of Political Parties: A New Measure and Survey,” British Journal of Political Science, Online first, Feb 2022.
  • Jan Rovny, Ryan Bakker, Liesbet Hooghe, Seth Jolly, Gary Marks, Jonathan Polk, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Anna Vachudova, “Contesting Covid: The Ideological Bases of Partisan Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic.” European Journal of Political Research
  • Seth Jolly, Ryan Bakker, Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Jonathan Polk, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, and Milada Anna Vachudova, “Chapel Expert Survey Trend File, 1999-2019,” Electoral Studies (online first Nov 2021).
  • Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks, Multilevel Governance and the Coordination Dilemma. In Arthur Benz, Jorg Broschek, and Markus Lederer, eds.  A Research Agenda for Multilevel Governance, Edgar Elgar, 19-36.