External Resources

Chapel Hill Expert Survey Wave of surveys estimating party positioning on European integration, ideology and policy issues for national parties in a variety of European countries. The first survey was conducted in 1999, with subsequent waves in 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014. Questions on parties’ general position on European integration, several EU policies, general left/right, economic left/right, and social left/right are common to all surveys. More recent surveys also contain questions on non-EU policy issues, such as immigration, redistribution, decentralization, and environmental policy.

Council of the European Union Official website of the Council of the European Union, the institution representing the member states’ governments.

Euractiv Independent pan-European media network specialised in EU policies.

Eurobarometer Wave of surveys monitoring the evolution of public opinion in all 28 EU Member States. Established in 1974, the aim is to assess EU citizens’ awareness of and support for the European Union’s activities. The surveys are conducted on behalf of the European Commission, and particular modules are commissioned by the European Parliament. The survey results are regularly published in official reports by the European Commission or by the European Parliament. Tracing public opinion trends helps the preparation of policy, decision-making, and the evaluation of the EU’s work. The primary data on microdata level and the related documentation are placed at the disposal of the scientific community for research and training and curated at the GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences data archive and at the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR).

European Commission Official website of the European Commission, the ‘engine room’ of the European Union. The Commission prepares legislation for adoption by the Council and the Parliament.

European Council Official website of the European Council, the institution that defines the general political direction and priorities of the European Union.

European Parliament Official website of the European Parliament, the directly elected legislative body of the European Union.

European Studies Center (ESC) Based at the University of Pittsburgh, The ESC coordinates and develops scholarship, teaching, and community events related to Europe and the European Union. The ESC supports the development of new courses, sponsors lectures, symposia, and conferences with international participants, offers faculty and graduate student grants, and provides an intellectual community for students and faculty studying all aspects of contemporary and historical Europe and the European Union.

European Union Studies Association (EUSA) Scholarly and professional association focusing on the European Union, the ongoing integration process, and transatlantic relations. Founded in 1988, EUSA is an independent, non-profit educational organization.

Parties and Elections in Europe Comprehensive database on parliamentary elections in the European countries and autonomous subdivisions since 1945. It contains additional information about the political parties, the electoral systems, the acting political leaders, the governments and the electoral laws.

Political Party Data Base Project (PPDB) Long-term international research programme on party organizations in democratic countries, established in 2011. The project aims to collect data on a wide range of organizational aspects, including intraparty structures and membership participation, parties’ financial and personal resources, and their methods of candidate and leadership selection. Currently, the project covers more than 130 parties in 25 countries. In addition, it provides an on-going collection of party statues in the original language.

VoteWatch Europe Independent think tank providing research based on votes in the EU institutions and political developments across the European Union.